Volume 423, Number 2, August IV 2004
|Page(s)||737 - 744|
|Published online||06 August 2004|
Phase diversity restoration of sunspot images
I. Relations between penumbral and photospheric features
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
2 Departamento de Análisis Matemático de la Universidad de La Laguna, 38271 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Observatoire du Pic du Midi, 57 avenue d'Azereix, BP 826, 65008 Tarbes, France
4 Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 25165 Ondřejov, Czech Republic
5 Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
6 Big bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA-92314, USA
Accepted: 30 April 2004
We investigate the dynamics of and the relations between small-scale penumbral and photospheric features near the outer penumbral boundary: penumbral grains (PGs), dark penumbral fibrils, granules, and photospheric G-band bright points. The analysis is based on a 2 h time sequence of a sunspot close to disc center, taken simultaneously in the G-band and in the blue continuum at 450.7 nm. Observations were performed at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (La Palma) in July 1999. A total of 2564 images () were corrected for telescope aberrations and turbulence perturbations by applying the inversion method of phase diversity. Our findings can by summarized as follows: (a) one third of the outward-moving PGs pass through the outer penumbral boundary and then either continue moving as small bright features or expand and develop into granules. (b) Former PGs and G-band bright points next to the spot reveal a different nature. The latter have not been identified as a continuation of PGs escaping from the penumbra. The G-band bright points are mostly born close to dark penumbral fibrils where the magnetic field is strong, whereas PGs stem from the less-magnetized penumbral component and evolve presumably to non-magnetic granules or small bright features.
Key words: Sun: photosphere / Sun: sunspots / methods: data analysis / techniques: image processing
© ESO, 2004
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