Volume 567, July 2014
|Number of page(s)||23|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||10 July 2014|
In this appendix, we summarize the different sources of the photometry used to construct the SED (see Table A.1).
A.2. Stellar parameters
The stellar properties of HD 135344B have been studied by previous authors (e.g., Dunkin et al. 1997; Müller et al. 2011; Andrews et al. 2011). While authors agree on a spectral type F4, an effective temperature 6750 ± 150 K (6660 K, Dunkin et al. 1997; 6590 K, Andrews et al. 2011; 6810 ± 80 K, Müller et al. 2011), and a mass of 1.6 to 1.7 M⊙, there is a discrepancy in estimations of the radius of the star. Müller et al. (2011) suggest a radii of 1.4 ± 0.25 R⊙, while Andrews et al. (2011) suggest a radii of 2.15 R⊙.
To have an independent assessment of the star properties, we downloaded reduced archival high-resolution (R = 75 000) ESO/VLT-UVES spectra of HD 135344B in the 4800 to 5500 Å and 5830−6800 Å ranges and used the interactive spectra visualization tool described in Carmona et al. (2010) to compare the UVES spectrum to BLUERED (Bertone et al. 2008) high-resolution synthetic spectra, in regions not contaminated by emission lines or telluric absorption. We found that the optical spectra of HD 135344B is compatible with spectral templates with Teff ranging from 6500 to 7000 K for logg ranging between 4.0 and 5.0 (see Fig. A.1). Naturally, logg = 5.0 is not realistic as logg = 4.33 for an F-type star on the main sequence. The minimum in the χ2 statistic suggests a Teff around 6750 K.
To have a second constraint on the spectral type and AV, we employed the HST/COS6 spectrum of HD 135344B. In Fig. A.2, we display coadded COS spectrum of HD 135344B, smoothed by a running nine-point boxcar filter, and dereddened by a Cardelli et al. (1989)R = 3.1 extinction curve with E(B − V) = 0.129 (Av = 0.4). We overplot F3V (HR 9028, IUE SWP 14002, red) and F4V (HD 27901, SWP 45935, blue) spectral type comparison stars scaled by the difference in V magnitudes between them and HD 135344B. The spectral template F4V provides the best fit to the observed COS spectrum. The F4V spectrum corresponds to a Teff of 6620 K using Schmidt-Kaler (1982).
as a function of the Teff of the observed VLT/UVES high-resolution (R = 75 000) spectrum and a rotational broadened BLUERED (Bertone et al. 2008) high-resolution synthetic spectra. υ sini was set to minimize for each Teff and log g.
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To obtain an estimate of the luminosity and to constrain the value of the radius, we used a distance of 140 pc (van Boekel et al. 2005), the B and V photometry (9.2 and 8.7, SIMBAD database), and the Teff, MV, BC values of Schmidt-Kaler (1982) for stars of luminosity class V (i.e., smallest possible radii). We found that for a Teff equal to 6440 K (F5) and 6890 K (F2), R = 2.09 and 2.07 R⊙ respectively. Interpolating for Teff 6620 K, we obtained 2.08 R⊙. These values are closer to the radius estimate of 2.15 R⊙ suggested by Andrews et al. (2011) than the 1.4 R⊙ claimed by Müller et al. (2011).
For our models, we used a star with Teff = 6620 K (F4V), a stellar radius of 2.1 R⊙, a mass of 1.65 M⊙, and Av = 0.4.
Coadded HST-COS spectrum of HD 135344B smoothed and dereddened (see details in the text). F3V (HR 9028, IUE SWP 14002, red) and F4V (HD 27901, SWP 45935, blue) spectral type comparison stars are shown, scaled by the difference in V magnitudes between them and HD 135344B. HD 135344B shows a distinct FUV excess for wavelengths shortward of 1600 Å, demonstrating the accretion luminosity. The structure seen in the COS data is not noise, but fluorescent H2 emission (France et al. 2012). The rise in flux for the comparison stars shortward of H I Lyman α is an artefact. No correction in all of the spectra has been made for geocoronal Lyman α.
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A.3. CO 4.7 μ m emission
The CO P(1) to P(11) line profiles are available within the CRIRES spectrum. The lines have been continuum subtracted and normalized by the peak flux. The CO P(10) line is in red.
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A.4. Model 5: Herschel CO and water lines
Predicted and observed CO rotational emission line fluxes by Model 5 at Herschel, sub-mm, and mm wavelengths.
Predicted emission line fluxes by Model 5 in selected H2O water lines at Herschel wavelengths.
A.5. Details of Model 5
In this figure, we show additional plots of the structure and emitting regions of several gas tracers in Model 5.
Model 5. Upper panels: (left) gas temperature, (right) dust temperature. Central panels: (left) hydrogen number density, (right) optical depth of the line (τline), of the continuum (τcont), cumulative vertical flux, and number density as a function of the radius for the [O i] line at 145 μm. The box in thick black lines represents the region in the disk that emits 70% of the line radially and 70% of the line vertically, thus approximately ~50% of the line flux. Lower panels: similar plots for the [C ii] line at 157 μm (left) and the ortho H2 0−0 S(1) at 17 μm (right).
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© ESO, 2014
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