EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 547, November 2012
Article Number A49
Number of page(s) 79
Section Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201219232
Published online 26 October 2012

Online material

Appendix A: Individual target descriptions

IRDCs were discovered and subsequently named based on their appearance in absorption against the bright Galactic background at 8 μm and 15 μm based on Galactic plane surveys almost two decades ago. The follow-up studies focused on IRDCs which were largest and most easily identifiable in contrast: those lying in the inner Galaxy. Because most millimeter facilities at the time were located in the northern hemisphere, detailed work was done preferentially on IRDCs in the first quadrant of the Galaxy, which is reflected in the fact that much of our selection of “well-studied” sources are found in the first quadrant. For the EPoS sample, we selected IRDCs from these various surveys, favoring the targets that are relatively nearby (d < 5 kpc). They are denoted as IRDC LLL.LL-B.BB in our catalog, where “L” and “B” are the Galactic longitude and latitude.

Another strategy utilized in selecting IRDCs takes advantage of the fact that high-mass star formation is known to occur in a clustered mode, and there is ample evidence for triggering of several generations of high-mass star formation (e.g. Deharveng et al. 2010), thus a portion of our sample is comprised of infrared-dark regions found in millimeter surveys near known high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs, Sridharan et al. 2002; Beuther et al. 2002a–d). Sridharan et al. (2005) correlated the 1.2 mm bolometer data from a well-studied HMPO sample with the corresponding MSX mid-infrared data. Within the 69 studied fields they found 56 gas clumps with associated mid-infrared shadows (Sridharan et al. 2005), most of them with masses in excess of several 100 M and temperatures on the order of  ~15 K (Sridharan et al. 2005). Follow-up observations revealed outflow activity – indicating already ongoing early star formation – in  ~40% of the sources, and dense gas abundances (e.g., CH3OH and CH3CN) are similar to those of low-mass starless cores (Beuther & Sridharan 2007).

Using the 170 μm ISOPHOT (Lemke et al. 1996) Serendipity Survey (ISOSS Bogun et al. 1996), we selected 16 candidates for massive (M > 100   M), cold (Tdust < 18 K) objects based on preliminary studies (Krause et al. 2003, 2004; Birkmann et al. 2007). For these sources, the naming convention derives from the FK5 (J2000) coordinates, r for right ascension and d for declination, represented as ISOSSJrrrrr ± dddd. As shown in Fig. 1, these objects represent the bulk of the objects from the outer Galaxy, which will have characteristically lower infrared background emission. The ISOSS sample has a large range in distances, but the median distance, 3.52 kpc, is only slightly higher than the median distance of the sample, 3.23 kpc.

IRDC  004.36-0.06: Hennebelle et al. (2001) first identified this source as a peak in the extinction from ISOGAL observations. Teyssier et al. (2002) detect 13CO and strong C18O emission associated with this sources.

IRDC  009.86-0.04: Another inner-Galaxy object from Hennebelle et al. (2001) that exhibits strong CO emission in Teyssier et al. (2002). Ragan et al. (2006) conducted further molecular studies on this IRDC, detecting N2H+ (1−0) and widespread CS(2−1) emission at the same velocity as Teyssier et al. (2002). Ragan et al. (2006) find a cloud mass of 1500 M based on the integrated map of N2H+ emission. Ragan et al. (2009) present Spitzer observations of this cloud. There are 31 YSOs in the vicinity of this cloud, two of which are classified in the earliest embedded phase.

IRDC  010.70-0.13: Carey et al. (2000) conduct continuum observations of this target and find a bright, compact source. Peretto & Fuller (2009) find nine fragments within this IRDC.

IRDC  011.11-0.12: This was one of the first IRDCs subject to intense study in the literature, first in the infrared (Carey et al. 1998), the millimeter (Carey et al. 2000; Johnstone et al. 2003), and in molecular line emission (Pillai et al. 2006a,b). The filament is about  ~20 pc long consisting of over 1800 M (from 8 μm extinction measurements), and the bulk of the gas has an average kinetic temperature of 12 K.

This object was observed as part of the Herschel science demonstration phase, and Henning et al. (2010) present the continuum properties of the pre- and proto-stellar cores uncovered at PACS wavelengths.

IRDC  013.90-0.51: Peretto & Fuller (2009) identify this object as a Spitzer dark core, and Vasyunina et al. (2009) perform 1.2 mm continuum observations showing it breaks into four main peaks. The southern-most source (P3) showed double-peaked molecular line profiles in Vasyunina et al. (2011) indicating either the presence of two components superimposed along the line of sight or internal motion within the cloud.

IRDC  015.05+0.09: Hennebelle et al. (2001) and Teyssier et al. (2002) identify this object as one of the most opaque objects, which results in depletion of the CO isotopomers onto the dust grains. Rathborne et al. (2006) find that this IRDC, with a total mass of 158 M, resolves into five 1.2 mm flux peaks with masses of 105, 83, 22, 43, and 29 M, assuming 15 K dust. Wang et al. (2006) report water maser associated with MM1 (of Rathborne et al. 2006).

IRDC  019.30+0.07: This source was targeted in Carey et al. (1998, 2000) detected in H2CO and SCUBA 450/850 μm surveys, indicating two main spatial peaks in emission. Pillai et al. (2006a) confirm this morphology in NH3 emission, find gas temperatures of 18.4 and 14.3 K, and masses of 893 and 823 M for these regions. Rathborne et al. (2006) find a total mass of 3168 M for the entire complex, though much lower masses (113 and 114 M) for the two respective peaks. Finally, Devine et al. (2011) find a total mass of 1130 M, concentrated in four NH3 clumps.

IRDC  028.34+0.06: Of all the sources in Carey et al. (2000), IRDC028.34+0.06 shows the strongest submillimeter emission (in two primary peaks at 450 and 850μm) and, thus, has the greatest estimated mass (up to several hundred M each depending on the choice of dust emissivity index, β). Pillai et al. (2006a) examine this source, here resolving into five subregions in NH3 emission, with temperatures ranging from 13.2 to 16.6 K and total mass of 4263 M (from ammonia measurements). Observations by Rathborne et al. (2006) at 1.2  mm find a total cloud mass of 15 895 M (the most massive in their sample) and resolve this target into 18 peaks. In three of those peaks (MM4, MM6, and MM9), Wang et al. (2006) detect water masers. Wang et al. (2008) perform high resolution observations in NH3, linking the presence of embedded protostars to the enhancement of linewidth and an increase in rotation temperature. Zhang et al. (2009) obtain SMA continuum and spectral line observations, further resolving the dominant cores into multiple substructures.

IRDC  048.66-0.29: Situated close to the GMC complex W51, this IRDC was targeted for SCUBA 450 and 850 μm and HCO+(3−2) observations by Ormel et al. (2005). They found that (at the resolution of the JCMT) this IRDC broke into three cores (P1, P2, and EP) near 100 M each, and the line data show that (intermediate mass) star formation is ongoing within the cores. Rathborne et al. (2006) surveyed this IRDC with 1.2 mm continuum observations, reporting a total cloud mass of 917 M for the cloud and 52 and 39 M masses for the dark cores reported in Ormel et al. (2005), though the core sizes in Rathborne et al. (2006) are considerably smaller, which could account for the difference. The star forming properties were studied in detail with Spitzer in van der Wiel & Shipman (2008), in which 13 YSOs were identified near the cloud. The Spitzer observations also resolved P1 (from Ormel et al. 2005) into two peaks, but found the star formation properties to be consistent.

IRDC  079.31+0.36: This IRDC is among the nearest in our sample and was first observed by Carey et al. (2000). Redman et al. (2003) characterize the ongoing star formation in this IRDC which may have been triggered. Pillai et al. (2006a) find high column densities (>1023 cm-3) and gas tempertatures between 12 and 15 K in this region. This object was included in the SCUBPOL legacy survey Matthews et al. (2009).

IRDC  310.39-0.30: Vasyunina et al. (2009) find the millimeter continuum emission peak coincides with the absorption peak in the mid-infrared, from which they estimate the mass is 1320 M. The continuum peak is stronger in the MIR dark source than for the nearby MIR-bright source, indicating that this IRDC could contain a range of evolutionary stages. The MIR-bright sources are included in the Cyganowski et al. (2008) EGO catalog, and Vasyunina et al. (2011) detect weak SiO emission in this IRDC.

IRDC  316.72+0.07: This object hosts a small cluster of embedded infrared sources and has a mass between 400 and 950 M derived from 8 μm extinction (Linz et al. 2007), or 561 M based on 1.2 mm emission.

IRDC  320.27+0.29: This cloud is comprised of a compact eastern component and an elongated western cloud, which are 50 and 70 M, respectively, based on 1.2 mm continuum observations (Vasyunina et al. 2009). Molecular line emission observed by Vasyunina et al. (2011) is weak.

IRDC  321.73+0.05: Two main clumps of approximately equal mass (about 100 MVasyunina et al. 2009) comprise this IRDC. The eastern source, with a column density of 3.2  ×  1022 cm-2, shows a weak source at 24 μm, yet Vasyunina et al. (2011) detect SiO and asymmetric HCO+ emission, indicating the presence of a shock and inflowing gas, both indicators of star formation activity at an early stage. The western source also exhibits multiple peaks in the molecular line emission attributed to complex internal motions throughout the cloud.

HMSC  07029: The clump HMSC07029 (a.k.a. UYSO 1) had been recognised as a distinct peak in a (sub-)millimeter survey of massive protocluster-cores in the outer galaxy by Klein et al. (2005). It is a distinct intermediate-mass core clearly offset from the neighboring IRAS source 07029-1215 which in the pre-Spitzer era was just detectable at wavelengths  ≥ 450   μm citepForbrich2004. However, strong CO outflow activity is also associated with this core. Forbrich et al. (2009) collected more data on this source and revealed an impressive system of crossed Hs shocked emission jets apparently emanating from the core which in Spitzer 70 μm images was 10′′ offset from the interferometric position in the millimeter. Our EPoS Herschel data could eventually disentangle the 70 μm peak position which is coinciding with the interferometric position, from the surrounding extended PDR emission. More details about this enigmatic region are given in our A&A special issue paper (Linz et al. 2010).

IRDC 18102: Although originally selected as a high-mass protostellar object (HMPO), the singular 1.2 mm continuum peak (Beuther et al. 2002b) in this regions turns out to be mid-infrared dark in MSX and offset by less than 1′ from an infrared-bright and centimeter-bright ultracompact Hii region. SiO emission, known to be associated with molecular outflows, is reported in Beuther & Sridharan (2007) associate with the millimeter continuum peak. Since the infrared-dark and bright regions are in so close proximity, interaction between the different evolutionary stages is expected.

IRDC 18151: The name-giving IRAS 18151-1208 is a well-known high-mass outflow-disk region (Davis et al. 2004; Fallscheer et al. 2011). In the vicinity of this active site, one finds two similarly massive gas-clumps of which the one is 8 μm-dark and hosts a H2O maser (Beuther et al. 2002d).

IRDC 18182: The central IRAS 18182-1433 is a well-known “hot core”-type high-mass star-forming region (Zapata et al. 2006; Beuther et al. 2006). The infrared-dark gas-clumps are found approximately 2′ to the southeast and northeast.

IRDC 18223: This filamentary dark cloud is located directly south of the luminous IRAS 18223-1243. The region contains regions is several evolutionary stages, from IRDCs with already embedded ongoing star formation (e.g. IRDC 18223-3 Beuther et al. 2005b; Beuther & Steinacker 2007; Fallscheer et al. 2009) to potentially real high-mass starless cores that are even dark at 70 μm (Beuther et al. 2010).

IRDC 18306: About 2′ offset to the northeast from the central IRAS 18306-0835 we find filamentary infrared-dark structures that are associated with millimeter continuum emission, broken into three main 1.2 mm peaks.

IRDC 18308: Again we find filamentary, mid-infrared dark millimeter continuum structures extending from IRAS 18308-0841 toward the north and containing five main 1.2 mm peaks.

IRDC 18310: This region hosts Hii region, IRAS 18310-0825, a compact mid-infrared-dark filament, totalling five distinct millimeter continuum peaks.

IRDC 18337: This region contains three strong 1.2 mm continuum sources that appear to be laid out in a linear structure. While the IRAS 18337-0743 has strong mid-infrared emission, the second source is still – although weaker – mid-infrared bright, and the third source is mid-infrared dark. This region is likely a particularly good candidate to investigate sequential star formation.

IRDC 18385: A 2′ millimeter continuum filament stems from IRAS 18385-0512, and an isolated infrared-dark globule lies to the south east.

IRDC 18437: This region contains a chain of millimeter continuum sources, including IRAS 18437-0216, in approximate north-south direction with different degrees of associated mid-infrared emission. Polarized sub-millimeter continuum emission is observed by Matthews et al. (2009).

IRDC 18454: This complex of several millimeter continuum sources is located at the north-eastern edge of the prominent Galactic mini-starburst W43 (Motte et al. 2003; Bally et al. 2010; Nguyên Lu’O’Ng et al. 2011) at the same systemic velocity, thus, at presumably the same distance. The millimeter continuum sources exhibit several velocity components. Beuther et al. (2012) explore whether these are due to chance projections or physical interactions. Furthermore, it is in general interesting to find infrared dark massive gas clumps in so close proximity to one of the most active star-forming regions in our Galaxy.

IRDC 18530: Extending about 3′ south of IRAS 18530+0215 one finds a filamentary infrared-dark structure that is associated with millimeter continuum emission.

IRDC 19175: This regions hosts a spiral-like filamentary structure extending several arc-minutes from IRAS 19175+1357 distributed in seven 1.2 mm clumps. Two of the mid-infrared dark gas clumps have already been studied by Beuther & Henning (2009) who found many smaller sub-structures within them.

IRDC 20081: IRAS 20081+2720 lies at the center of a compact infrared-dark filament with two compact 1.2 mm peaks to the north and south.

ISOSS sources

The ISOSS portion of the sample lies largely in the outer Galaxy, thus there are fewer detailed studies in the literature to date. In many cases a nearby (possibly associated) IRAS source was included in a maser survey. These resulted in non-detections in most cases, but we list the exceptions below along with the descriptions of the few detailed studies.

ISOSSJ04225+5150: Birkmann (2006, PhD) found three compact cores in this region. The first core (SMM1) has a mass of 275 M and a temperature of 21.4 K. The most massive core (SMM3, 510 M, 17 K) show indications for shocked outflows and an associated PDR (Pitann et al. 2011).

ISOSSJ06527+0140:Migenes et al. (1999) and Sunada et al. (2007) detect a water maser at the position of IRAS source IRAS 06501+0143.

ISOSSJ18364-0221:Birkmann et al. (2006) found that ISOSS J18364-0221 broke into two compact cores (SMM1 and SMM2). SMM1 is a protostellar core (16.5 K, 75 M) with energetic outflows. The second core (SMM2) is a more massive (280 M), pre-stellar object of lower temperature (12 K).

Hennemann et al. (2009) performed follow-up millimeter continuum and molecular line observations of SMM1 and found it was actually comprised of two sub-clumps (SMM1 North and South). While SMM1 South is detected at 24 and 70 μm and SMM1 North is undetected in the infrared, both are associated with molecular outflows reaching up to 4.6 pc from the core.

ISOSSJ19357+1950: SCUBA observations (Hennemann et al. 2008) reveal three resolved clumps at 450 μm: SMM1 North (0.37 pc, 70 M) and South (0.31 pc, 50 M), and SMM2 in the South-West (0.39 pc, 120 M). SMM2 hosts a deeply embedded protostellar object that may evolve to a massive YSO.

ISOSSJ19486+2556:Hennemann et al. (2008) find three submillimeter clumps (SMM1-3) in this region, located along a chain from North-East to South-West. SMM2 and SMM3 are associated with bright 24 and 70 μm sources and have masses of 40 and 60 M, whereas SMM1 (100 M) is not detected with Spitzer.

ISOSSJ20153+3453: A single core with a gas mass of  ~120 M and a dust temperature of 17 K was identified in this region by Hennemann et al. (2008). Two neighboring mid-infrared sources are detected towards SMM1, the one towards the submillimeter peak is interpreted as embedded YSO that is actively accreting as suggested by the presence of “fuzzy” emission prominent at 4.5 μm. Futher Spitzer observations indicate the presence of a PDR. Excited gas suggests shocked outflows in this region (Pitann et al. 2011).

ISOSSJ20298+3559: This region harbors four submillimeter clumps SMM1-4 and has been studied in detail in Krause et al. (2003) except for SMM4 which is offset to the west. SMM1 (0.14 pc, 10 M) and SMM2 (unresolved: 0.07 pc, 3 M) are joined by extended submillimeter emission. SMM4 is more extended (0.34 pc, 60 M) than the other clumps. SMM1 hosts an embedded intermediate-mass YSO, and a Class II-like intermediate-mass YSO is associated with SMM4 (Hennemann et al. 2008).

ISOSSJ22478+6357: An elongated clump (SMM1) is resolved in both an Eastern (0.14 pc, 60 M) and a Western component (0.24 pc, 120 M) at 450 μm. Towards SMM1 East, a Class II-like YSO of intermediate central mass has been identified among several 24 μm sources (Hennemann et al. 2008).

ISOSSJ23053+5953:Birkmann et al. (2007) identified two cores in this region with  ~200 M each (at 19.5 K and 17.3 K). HCO+ kinematics indicate in-falling gas in both cores. Several outflow features were found in this region by interferometric, spectroscopic and NIR narrow-band observations (see Birkmann et al. 2007; Pitann et al. 2011).

Appendix B: Images

thumbnail Fig. B.1

The Herschel a) PACS 70 μm, b) PACS 100 μm, c) PACS 160 μm, d) SPIRE 250 μm, e) SPIRE 350 μm, and f) SPIRE 500 μm images of HMSC 07029. The flux scales on the right edge of each PACS panel are in Jy pixel-1 and Jy beam-1 for the SPIRE panels. Point sources are marked with a blue  × , and the white solid line marks the boundary defined in Sect. 2.3.2. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels show SCUBA 850 μm emission from 20% of peak flux in increments of 10%: 0.32, 0.49, 0.65, 0.81, 0.97, 1.13, 1.30, 1.46, 1.62 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.2

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 310.39-0.30. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, 1.05, 1.2, 1.35, 1.5 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.3

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 316.72+0.07. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.4

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 320.27+0.29. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.5

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 321.73+0.05. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show MAMBO 1.2 mm: 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.18, 0.21, 0.24, 0.27, 0.3 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.6

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 004.36-0.06. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.18, 0.21, 0.25, 0.28, 0.32, 0.35 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.7

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 009.86-0.04. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.08, 0.13, 0.168, 0.21, 0.25, 0.29, 0.34, 0.38, 0.42 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.8

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 010.70-0.13. Cyan contours on SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.39, 0.59, 0.78, 0.98, 1.17 , 1.37, 1.56, 1.76, 1.95 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.9

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 011.11-0.12. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.34, 0.51, 0.68, 0.85, 1.02, 1.19, 1.36, 1.53, 1.7 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.10

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18102. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.68, 1.03, 1.37, 1.71, 2.05, 2.40, 2.74, 3.08 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.11

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 013.90-0.51. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.25, 0.37, 0.50, 0.62, 0.74, 0.87, 0.99, 1.12, 1.24 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.12

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 015.05+0.09. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.08, 0.13, 0.17, 0.21, 0.25, 0.29, 0.34, 0.38, 0.42 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.13

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18151. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show MAMBO 1.2 mm: 0.13, 0.20, 0.27, 0.35, 0.40, 0.47, 0.54, 0.61, 0.67 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.14

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18182.Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.15

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18223. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.49, 0.74, 0.99, 1.24, 1.48, 1.73, 1.98, 2.22, 2.47 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.16

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 19.30+0.07. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.25, 0.37, 0.50, 0.62, 0.74, 0.87, 0.99, 1.12, 1.24 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.17

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18306. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 ,1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.18

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18308. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 ,1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.19

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18310. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 ,1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.20

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18337. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 ,1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.21

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18385. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 ,1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.22

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 028.34+0.06. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8, 3.2, 3.6, 4.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.23

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18437. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.24

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18454. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.25

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 18530. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.26

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 19175. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.19, 0.29, 0.38, 0.48, 0.57, 0.67, 0.76, 0.86, 0.95 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.27

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 048.66-0.29. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show ATLASGAL 870 μm: 0.106, 0.159, 0.21, 0.265, 0.318, 0.371, 0.424, 0.477, 0.53 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.28

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 20081. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show MAMBO 1.2 mm: 0.04, 0.07, 0.09, 0.11, 0.13, 0.14, 0.16, 0.18 Jy beam-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.29

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for IRDC 079.31+0.36. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.30

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J04225+5150. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.22, 0.32, 0.43, 0.54, 0.65, 0.76, 0.86, 0.97, 1.08 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.31

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J06114+1726.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.32

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J06527+0140. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.41, 0.62, 0.82, 1.03, 1.24, 1.44, 1.65, 1.85, 2.06 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.33

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J18364-0221. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.21, 0.31, 0.42, 0.52, 0.63, 0.73, 0.83, 0.94, 1.04 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.34

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J19357+1950. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.17, 0.20, 0.23, 0.26, 0.29 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.35

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J19486+2556. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.18, 0.22, 0.25, 0.29, 0.32, 0.36 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.36

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J19557+2825. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.13, 0.19, 0.26, 0.32, 0.38, 0.45, 0.51, 0.58, 0.64 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.37

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J20093+2729. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, 0.13, 0.15, 0.18, 0.20, 0.23, 0.25 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.38

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J20153+3453. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.28, 0.41, 0.55, 0.69, 0.83, 0.97, 1.10, 1.24, 1.38 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.39

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J20298+3559. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.08, 0.12, 0.20, 0.24, 0.28, 0.32, 0.36, 0.40 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.40

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J21311+5127. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, 0.36, 0.42, 0.48, 0.54, 0.60 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.41

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J22164+6003. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.08, 0.12, 0.20, 0.24, 0.28, 0.32, 0.36, 0.40 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.42

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J22478+6357. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.11, 0.17, 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, 0.39, 0.45, 0.50, 0.56 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.43

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J23053+5953. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.44

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J23129+5944. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.14, 0.21, 0.28, 0.35, 0.42, 0.49, 0.56, 0.63, 0.70 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

thumbnail Fig. B.45

Same image layout as Fig. B.1 but for ISOSS J23287+6039. Cyan contours on the SPIRE panels d)f) show SCUBA 850 μm: 0.08, 0.12, 0.20, 0.24, 0.28, 0.32, 0.36, 0.40 Jy beam-1.

Open with DEXTER

Appendix C: Core catalog

Table C.1

Point sources.


© ESO, 2012

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