Open Access

Table 1

Fixed various timescales and other physical parameters in the fiducial model.

Prestellar timescale 7.3×105 yr
Isothermal collapse timescale 2.0×104 yr
Warm-up timescale/contraction timescale 2.0×105 yr
Hot corino timescale 2.8×105 yr
Protostellar timescale 5.0×105 yr

Visual extinction of ambient clouds 3.0 mag
Maximum temperature 200 K
Unattenuated FUV flux 1.7 Habing
Dust-to-gas mass ratio 0.01
Dust albedo 0.6
Dust grain radius 0.1 µm
Dust material density 3.0 g cm−3
Dust site density 1015 cm−2
Chemical desorption efficiency 0.03
Ratio of surface diffusion to desorption energies 0.4
Ratio of bulk diffusion to desorption energies 0.8
Mean molecular weight 1.36

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.