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Table 9

Detection rates of CO first overtone bandhead emission (CO emission) in YSOs of different masses and stages of formation.

Mass (a) Object type Detection rate Sample size Comments Reference
Low Class 0 67% 6 1
Low Class I 15% 52 2
Low Class I 22% 110 3
Low T Tauri 0% 100 Sample from Lupus region. Authors find 3 cl TTS with CO emission in literature. 4
Low to intermediate Variable, embedded (EXors, FUors, MNors) 38% 28 60% among objects identified as eruptive YSOs undergoing an episode of accretion. 5
Intermediate Herbig AeBe 5–21% 36 6
Intermediate Herbig AeBe 7% 91 Strong preference for higher-mass objects. 7
High MYSO 17% 195 Red MSX Source (RMS) survey; low resolution spectroscopy. 8
High MYSO (without HII region) 34% 36 Subsample RMS, selected to be luminous and radio quiet; intermediate resolution spectroscopy. 9
High MYSO (with and without H II region) 18% 11 Sources associated with a disk (candidate) in sub-mm/radio and with a bright NIR counterpart. 10
Intermediate to high PMS stars in M17 63–83% 6–8 Sample from which the objects in this study were taken. RT17

Notes. (a)The mass categories refer to expected ZAMS masses of approximately ≲2 M (low), 2–8 M (intermediate) and ≳8 M (high). Since mass estimates are not always available or derived in the same way the numbers are approximate.

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