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Fig. 4

image

2D distribution of the free-electron density Ne (left) and of the 56Ni mass fraction (right; the 56Ni mass fraction is in practice always lower than about 0.01 beyond 1000 km s−1 along all latitudes – see Fig. 3), normalized to their corresponding values along the pole, for model 2D-X1-X2b at 44 d after explosion. We use model 1D-X2b up to 25–30 deg, and model 1D-X1 beyond. The vertical corresponds to the axis of symmetry, so polar angle β of zero and 180 deg, and the horizontal corresponds to the equatorial direction. This axisymmetric ejecta has mirror symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane. The black label along the one o’clock direction gives the radial velocity in units of 1000 km s−1. The ejecta asymmetry stems from the asymmetric distribution of 56Ni, as well as differences in the outer ejecta (through the presence of a dense RSG progenitor atmosphere or not) and differences in the inner ejecta (complete mixing and smoothing of the He core material) – see Fig. 3 and Sect. 3.2.3 for details.

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