Measured RAR of all GL-KiDS lenses (black points with 1σ error bars) divided into four stellar mass bins, with the mean galaxy mass (stars + cold gas) of the lenses shown at the top of each panel. This figure primarily shows the effect on the RAR when the isolation criterion is not applied, which is quite significant and depends on the stellar mass of the galaxies (which correlates with galaxy clustering). The extrapolated M16 and EG predictions (grey solid and red dashed lines) function merely as a reference, showing the approximate location of the isolated galaxy RAR. They do not represent predictions in this case because gbar is calculated using only the baryonic masses of the main lens galaxies (without including the baryonic masses of the satellites). The predictions from the MICE simulation (red line) match with our observations, which shows that the clustering simulated within MICE, driving the low-acceleration upturn due to the two-halo term, is indeed quite accurate.
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