Volume 650, June 2021
|Number of page(s)||30|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||22 June 2021|
The weak lensing radial acceleration relation: Constraining modified gravity and cold dark matter theories with KiDS-1000
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
2 Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3 Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
4 Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
5 Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
6 Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomical Institute (AIRUB), German Centre for Cosmological Lensing, 44780 Bochum, Germany
7 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
8 School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 519082 Zhuhai Campus, PR China
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, Napoli 80131, Italy
10 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
11 Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
12 Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, 105 Delhi Road, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
13 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
14 Hamburger Sternwarte, University of Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
15 Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO), Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030, PR China
16 University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquanlu 19A, Beijing 100049, PR China
17 Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland
Accepted: 12 April 2021
We present measurements of the radial gravitational acceleration around isolated galaxies, comparing the expected gravitational acceleration given the baryonic matter (gbar) with the observed gravitational acceleration (gobs), using weak lensing measurements from the fourth data release of the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS-1000). These measurements extend the radial acceleration relation (RAR), traditionally measured using galaxy rotation curves, by 2 decades in gobs into the low-acceleration regime beyond the outskirts of the observable galaxy. We compare our RAR measurements to the predictions of two modified gravity (MG) theories: modified Newtonian dynamics and Verlinde’s emergent gravity (EG). We find that the measured relation between gobs and gbar agrees well with the MG predictions. In addition, we find a difference of at least 6σ between the RARs of early- and late-type galaxies (split by Sérsic index and u − r colour) with the same stellar mass. Current MG theories involve a gravity modification that is independent of other galaxy properties, which would be unable to explain this behaviour, although the EG theory is still limited to spherically symmetric static mass models. The difference might be explained if only the early-type galaxies have significant (Mgas ≈ M⋆) circumgalactic gaseous haloes. The observed behaviour is also expected in Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models where the galaxy-to-halo mass relation depends on the galaxy formation history. We find that MICE, a ΛCDM simulation with hybrid halo occupation distribution modelling and abundance matching, reproduces the observed RAR but significantly differs from BAHAMAS, a hydrodynamical cosmological galaxy formation simulation. Our results are sensitive to the amount of circumgalactic gas; current observational constraints indicate that the resulting corrections are likely moderate. Measurements of the lensing RAR with future cosmological surveys (such as Euclid) will be able to further distinguish between MG and ΛCDM models if systematic uncertainties in the baryonic mass distribution around galaxies are reduced.
Key words: gravitational lensing: weak / methods: statistical / surveys / galaxies: halos / dark matter / cosmology: theory
© M. M. Brouwer et al. 2021
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