Excitation temperatures (Tex) as a functionof opacity (τ) for 13CS J = 2–1 (top) and C34S J = 3–2 (bottom). Molecular column densities range between 1011 and 1015 cm−2, and the kinetic temperature is 80, 200, and 400 K, represented by blue, green, and red lines, respectively. Δ(Tex) refers to the Tex maximum variation between τ = 0.04 and 0.15 (delineated by dashed vertical red lines).
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