Volume 642, October 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||23 October 2020|
Sulphur and carbon isotopes towards Galactic centre clouds★
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie,
Auf dem Hügel 69,
2 Department of Astronomy, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3 Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 830011 Urumqi, PR China
4 Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (ISM), CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Libération, 33400 Talence, France
5 Institute for Astrophysical Research, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University Boston, MA 02215, USA
6 Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
7 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 30 August 2020
Context. Measuring isotopic ratios is a sensitive technique used to obtain information on stellar nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution.
Aims. We present measurements of the carbon and sulphur abundances in the interstellar medium of the central region of our Galaxy. The selected targets are the +50 km s−1 Cloud and several line-of-sight clouds towards Sgr B2(N).
Methods. Towards the +50 km s−1 Cloud, we observed the J = 2–1 rotational transitions of 12C32S, 12C34S, 13C32S, 12C33S, and 13C34S, and the J = 3–2 transitions of 12C32S and 12C34S with the IRAM-30 m telescope, as well as the J = 6–5 transitions of 12C34S and 13C32S with the APEX 12 m telescope, all in emission. The J = 2–1 rotational transitions of 12C32S, 12C34S, 13C32S, and 13C34S were observed with ALMA in the envelope of Sgr B2(N), with those of 12C32S and 12C34S also observed in the line-of-sight clouds towards Sgr B2(N), all in absorption.
Results. In the +50 km s−1 Cloud we derive a 12C/13C isotopic ratio of 22.1−2.4+3.3, that leads, with the measured 13C32S/12C34S line intensity ratio, to a 32S/34S ratio of 16.3−2.4+3.0. We also derive the 32S/34S isotopic ratio more directly from the two isotopologues 13C32S and 13C34S, which leads to an independent 32S/34S estimation of 16.3−1.7+2.1 and 17.9 ± 5.0 for the +50 km s−1 Cloud and Sgr B2(N), respectively. We also obtain a 34S/33S ratio of 4.3 ± 0.2 in the +50 km s−1 Cloud.
Conclusions. Previous studies observed a decreasing trend in the 32S/34S isotopic ratios when approaching the Galactic centre. Our result indicates a termination of this tendency at least at a galactocentric distance of 130−30+60 pc. This is at variance with findings based on 12C/13C, 14N/15N, and 18O/17O isotope ratios, where the above-mentioned trend is observed to continue right to the central molecular zone. This can indicate a drop in the production of massive stars at the Galactic centre, in the same line as recent metallicity gradient ([Fe/H]) studies, and opens the work towards a comparison with Galactic and stellar evolution models.
Key words: Galaxy: centre / submillimetre: ISM / Galaxy: formation / Galaxy: evolution / stars: atmospheres / submillimetre: general
The reduced spectra and datacubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/642/A222
© P. K. Humire et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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