Open Access

Table 1

Initial parameters for the simulation from Fig. 1 that leads to a 997.6 M gas giant planet for the ΣPr−2.1 distribution and a 281.7 M gas giant planet in the dynamical planetesimal formation run.

Symbol Value Meaning
Mdisk 0.128 M Total mass of the gas disk
ain 0.03 au Inner planetesimal disk radius
aout 137 au Exponential cutoff radius
dg 3.2 × 10−2 Dust-to-gas ratio
α 1.0 × 10−3 Turbulence parameter
astart 8.2 au Embryo starting location
Memb 0.0123 M Embryo starting mass
Mwind 2.87 × 10−5 M yr−1 Photoevaporation rate

Planetesimal formation parameters

vfrag 10 m s−1 Fragmentation velocity (pebbles)
ɛd 0.01 Planetesimal formation efficiency
ρs 1.0 g cm−3 Planetesimal solid density
Stmin 0 Min Stokes number for planetesimal formation
Stmax Max Stokes number for planetesimal formation

Notes. The parameters for the planetesimal formation are the same for every simulation. The total mass in planetesimals within 10 au is given as 525 M in the ΣPr−2.1 system, 327 M in the ΣPr−1.5 system, and 132 M in the ΣPr−0.9 system. The dynamical model leads to a total planetesimal mass within 10 au after one million years of 407 M. The high planetesimal mass in the dynamical formation run is a result of the high initial dust mass that results from the metallicity (dust-to-gas ratio) and the high total gas mass of 0.128 M. The efficiency for planetesimal formation ɛ is given low enough so that a large fraction of the outer mass can drift inward and contribute to planetesimal formation in the inner regions. A higher efficiency would lead to a lower mass within 10 au because most of the outer material would quickly be transformed into planetesimals outside and not contribute to substantial planetesimal formation in the inner region of the disk.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.