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Fig. 1


Exemplary disk evolution including our dynamical model for planetesimal formation after 0.1, 1, and 2 Myr. We showthe surface density for the dust, pebbles, planetesimals, gas, and their individual disk masses. The dashed lines refer to the initial profile of the corresponding density. This run does not contain a planetary embryo, it only evolves the disk dynamically. The total disk gas mass is given as 0.012 M with a dust-to-gas ration of 1.5% and α = 10−3. The exponential cutoff radius of the disk is at 137 au, the inner radius at 0.03 au, and the evaporation rate is given as 2.87 × 10−5 M yr−1. The planetesimal and solid-evolution parameters can be found in Table 1. The effect of the ice line is visible in the kink in the planetesimal distribution around 1 au and the effect of drift vs. fragmentation-limited pebble size in the radially varying dust-to-pebble ratio.

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