Planck 2018 results
Free Access

Table 8.

Inflationary “scorecard,” comparing the predictions of the simplest inflationary models with observations.

Prediction Measurement
A spatially flat universe ΩK = 0.0007 ± 0.0019
with a nearly scale-invariant (red)
spectrum of density perturbations, ns = 0.967 ± 0.004
which is almost a power law, dn/dlnk = −0.0042 ± 0.0067
dominated by scalar perturbations, r0.002 <  0.065
which are Gaussian fNL = −0.9 ± 5.1
and adiabatic, α−1 = 0.00013 ± 0.00037
with negligible topological defects f <  0.01

Notes. In all cases, the tightest observational limits come from Planck, sometimes in combination with other data sets (as described in the text). Here we quote symmetric, 68% CL uncertainties or 95% upper limits on each quantity, taken from Planck Collaboration XI (2016), Planck Collaboration IV (2020), Planck Collaboration IX (2020), and Planck Collaboration X (2020). All quantities have their usual meanings, with α−1 the amplitude of an isocurvature component to the fluctuations and the topological defect limit referring specifically to Nambu-Goto cosmic strings (see Table 8 of Planck Collaboration XI 2016, for other cases).

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.