Constraints on the growth rate of fluctuations, fσ8, as a function of redshift, compared to the predictions of the ΛCDM model constrained by Planck (from Planck Collaboration IV 2020). The fσ8 measurements are: dark cyan, 6dFGS and velocities from SNe Ia (Huterer et al. 2017); green, 6dFGRS (Beutler et al. 2012); purple square, SDSS MGS (Howlett et al. 2015); cyan cross, SDSS LRG (Oka et al. 2014); dark red, GAMA (Blake et al. 2013); red, BOSS DR12 (Alam et al. 2017); blue, WiggleZ (Blake et al. 2012); olive, VIPERS (Pezzotta et al. 2017); dark blue, FastSound (Okumura et al. 2016); and orange, BOSS DR14 quasars (Zarrouk et al. 2018). The agreement between the low-z measures and the ΛCDM prediction is very good, indicating that the model (constrained by observations in the high-z Universe) correctly predicts the rate of growth of large-scale structure observed in the nearby Universe.
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