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Fig. 1.


Examples of GLE time profiles on the background of different baselines: quiet period (panel a), diurnal waves (panel b), and recovery after a Forbush decrease (panel c). The dash-dotted blue lines indicate the formal baseline, corresponding to N0, the dashed red lines depict the variable baseline Nb, and the grey shading indicates the increase Id above it. The data were obtained from the International GLE Database (, and GLE number and NM name are given in the legend.

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