Signal chain. Following the main arrow, is the input photon flux. The units of successive transformations are given in brackets: [ph] photons, [e−] electrons, [VL] and [VNL] linear and nonlinear volts, and [adu] the analog-to-digital units. T is the optical throughput, Q is the quantum efficiency, F the flat field, de is the dark current. The readout label is the frame transfer, the triangle represents the analog amplifier with its gain g, its nonlinearity NL and its bias voltage bV. AD is the analog to digital converter. The output is the raw image .
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