Open Access

Fig. 2.

image

Signal chain. Following the main arrow, is the input photon flux. The units of successive transformations are given in brackets: [ph] photons, [e] electrons, [VL] and [VNL] linear and nonlinear volts, and [adu] the analog-to-digital units. T is the optical throughput, Q is the quantum efficiency, F the flat field, de is the dark current. The readout label is the frame transfer, the triangle represents the analog amplifier with its gain g, its nonlinearity NL and its bias voltage bV. AD is the analog to digital converter. The output is the raw image .

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.