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Fig. 8


Pebble accretion efficiency as a function of distance from the planet and mass of the protosatellite (qs = MsMp is the ratio of the mass of the seed to that of the planet) in a CPD surrounding Jupiter (top panel) or Saturn (bottom panel). Here, pebbles with a constant Stokes number (St = 5 × 10−3) were assumed. In both panels, yellow dots correspond to the current mass and orbital distances of the major satellites of Jupiter (Galilean moons), or Saturn (Titan). The yellow dashed line shows the pebble isolation mass as a function of the distancefrom the planet, which is the maximum mass a satellite can reach through pebble accretion.

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