Growth maps of protosatellites through pebble accretion as a function of distance from their parent planet and time, in thecase of Jovian (left panels) and Saturnian (right panels) circum-planetary disks. A fixed Stokes number, St = 5 × 10−3, has been assumed, as well as a characteristic deposition radius of ablated material r0 = 20 RJup∕Sat and a mass accretion rate Ṁ0 = 3 × 10−9 Mp yr−1. Top panels show cases where the flux of pebbles through the disk is . The bottom panels include the effect of a snowline, assuming that the flux of pebbles is halved inside of the snowline due to the sublimation of water ice. The white line in each panel indicates the time needed to reach the pebble isolation mass at a given radial distance, whereas the white dots in the top and bottom left panels mark the time at which the mass of the Galilean moons is reached at their present location (but see Fig. 11 for actual growth tracks of Galilean-like moons). The time needed to reach the mass of Titan at its present location (~20 RSat) exceeds 1 My for the assumed parameters, and we argue in Sect. 7.3 that Titan may have formed from the merging of lower mass moons following a dynamical instability.
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