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Fig. 1.


3D parametric visualization of the vs. and ℰx(t, z) fields for different time slices as a function of z (purple curves). The thick red curves show the time averaged (beyond the kinematic regime) vertical profiles for Rm = 500 (left panel), and 1.5 × 104 (right panel). The small Rm simulations have a smoothly evolving circular dependencies while higher Rm cases develop secondary oscillations around the main “torus”. This is consistent with the simulation becoming more “turbulent” as Reynolds number is increased.

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