p-values for dipolar modulation, to be compared with Fig. 30 in Planck Collaboration XVI (2016). Green and red bands show the 1σ and 2σ spread of p-values measured in 1000 Gaussian simulations (left plot) and 1000 non-Gaussian model simulations (right plot). In both plots, the black line shows the p-values for Planck data taken from Fig. 30 in Planck Collaboration XVI (2016). These p-values show the percentage of Gaussian simulations having larger dipolar modulation up to the given multipole than the Planck data (calibrated with 1000 Gaussian simulations).
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