Illustration of the impact of clumping on the gas temperature (top panel) and the oxygen ionization (bottom panel) in the magnetar-powered SN model r0e2 at 240 d after explosion, when conditions are nebular. Together with the smooth model (fvol = 1.0) discussed in previous sections (and in particular in Sect. 3), the figure shows the results for clumped models with fvol of 0.1, 0.03, and 0.01. In each case, the adopted clumping is constant with depth in the ejecta. Models with higher clumping correspond to ejecta that are cooler and less ionized, and with optical spectra that are consequently redder and with lines from ions with a lower ionization (Fig. 24).
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