Highlight
Free Access

Table 1.

Carbon fraction fc = Σctot after 1 Myr at 1 au for models limited by vertical transport and models limited by vertical and radial transport.

Variation Value fc at 1 au after 1 Myr
only vertical transport vertical + radial transport
Fiducial 1.7 × 10−3 0.16
Higher UV-flux LUV = 0.1 L 5.2 × 10−5 0.11
Lower opacity κ0 = 4 × 103 cm2 g−1 6.4 × 10−11 0.052
Larger opacity κ0 = 1 × 105 cm2 g−1 0.10 0.23
Lower turbulence α = 10−3 0.015 0.24
Less small grains p = 3 0.061 0.23
Lower fragmentation velocity vf = 3 m s−1 4.0 × 10−8 0.12

Notes. Initial carbon fraction is fc = 0.25. Only one parameter is varied with respect to the fiducial model.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.