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Table 2.

Parameters for the simulations.

Parameter Value
Mass (Jupiter) 1.8986e+27
Mass (Io) 893.3e+20
Mass (Europa) 479.7e+20
Mass (Ganymede) 1482.0e+20
Mass (Callisto) 1076.0e+20
J2 1.478e−2
G 6.67259e−20

Notes. Masses are in kilograms, and the gravitational constant has kilometers as the unit of length (the others are SI units).

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