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Fig. 4


Left panel: observed 12CO SLED of AzTEC/C159 and other z > 4 SMGs for comparison: GN20 (Carilli et al. 2010), AzTEC-3 (Riechers et al. 2010), and J1000+0234 (Schinnerer et al. 2008). Gray lines show the expected trend for thermalization, i.e., LTE conditions. The dashed and solid color lines connect the data points to illustrate the shape of the different 12 CO SLEDs. The line fluxes have been normalized to the 12CO(2 →1) line. Right panel: intrinsic 12CO SLED of AzTEC/C159. The observed flux densities for 12CO(2 →1) and 12 CO(5 →4) have been corrected up by 1/0.7 and 1/0.8, respectively, to take into account the CMB effect (see Sect. 4.1). We also present the 12CO SLED of the Milky Way galactic center (Fixsen et al. 1999), MS disk-galaxies at z ~ 1.5 (Daddi et al. 2015), and a sample of SMGs (median of z = 2.2, Bothwell et al. 2013); similarly, we normalize all the line fluxes to the 12CO(2 → 1) line. Shaded regions show the dispersion of the 12CO SLEDs for different SMGs and disk galaxies samples.

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