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Table A.1

Planetary parameters.

Parameter Venus Earth Mars Unit Explanation References
rplanet 6051.8 6371 3389.5 km Mean radius of planet
Mplanet 4.867 × 1024 5.972 × 1024 6.417 × 1023 kg Mass of planet
nsw 1.2 × 107 6.0 × 106 2.6 × 106 m−3 Solar wind density
vsw 4 × 105 4 × 105 4 × 105 ms−1 Solar wind speed
Bz −12 −10 −7 nT IMF Bz
rexo 6271.8 6871 3609.5 km Radius of the exobase 1, 2
rIMB 6666.8 7647 4489.5 km Radius of the IMB 3, 4
md0 <7 × 1018 7.77 × 1022 <2 × 1018 Am2 Dipole moment 5–7
nexo,H 1.3 × 109 8.5 × 1010 2.5 × 1010 m−3 Hydrogen density at exobase 8
nexo,O 7.5 × 1010 4 × 1010 5.7 × 1012 m−3 Oxygen density at exobase 9–11
Texo,H 1020 900 350 K Exobase temperature 1, 8
Texo,O 6400 4100 300 K Exobase temperature 10–12

Q0,pc,H 7.8 × 1025 s−1 Ref. rate polar cap H escape 13
Q0,pc,O 8 × 1024 s−1 Ref. rate polar cap O escape 13, 14
Q0,cu,H 5 × 1024 s−1 Ref. rate cusp H escape 15
Q0,cu,O 2 × 1025 s−1 Ref. rate cusp O escape 15–17
Q0,pu,H 1.3 × 1025 5.3 × 1026 2.3 × 1025 s−1 Ref. rate pickup H escapea 1
Q0,pu,O 1.2 × 1025 7.9 × 1022 2.6 × 1032 s−1 Ref. rate pickup O escapea 1, 18, 19
Q0,cf,H 1.4 × 1025 7.7 × 1025 2.0 × 1024 s−1 Cross-field ion loss rate H 20–22
Q0,cf,O 5.2 × 1024 3 × 1024 2.0 × 1024 s−1 Cross-field ion loss rate O 21–24
Q0,ldr,O 0 0 5 × 1024 s−1 Low diss. recomb. rate 25
Q0,hdr,O 0 0 5.9 × 1025 s−1 High diss. recomb. rate 26
Q0,sp,O 6 × 1024 6 × 1024 4.5 × 1023 s−1 Ref. rate sputtering 27–29

Notes. The table lists the parameters used in the escape calculation.

(a)

The tabulated pickup rates Q0,pu,α correspond to the hypothetical case where the boundary is at the exobase. Actual escape rates are found by scaling according to Eq. (A.10).

References. (1) Lammer (2013); (2) Lichtenegger et al. (2006); (3) Stenberg Wieser et al. (2015); (4) Bertucci et al. (2011); (5) Acuña et al. (2001); (6) Olson & Amit (2006); (7) Luhmann et al. (2015); (8) Anderson Jr. & Hord (1977); (9) McElroy et al. (1982); (10) Shematovich et al. (1994); (11) Chaufray et al. (2009); (12) Nagy et al. (1981); (13) Engwall et al. (2009); (14) Maes et al. (2016); (15) Pollock et al. (1990); (16) Nilsson (2011); (17) Slapak et al. (2013); (18) Masunaga et al. (2013); (19) Ramstad et al. (2015); (20) Lundin et al. (2009); (21) Nordström et al. (2013); (22) André & Cully (2012); (23) Nilsson et al. (2011); (24) Welling et al. (2015); (25) Lammer & Bauer (1991); (26) Cravens et al. (2017); (27) Luhmann & Kozyra (1991); (28) Lammer et al. (2006); (29) Chaufray et al. (2007).

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