Electron beam duration at different plasma frequencies, assuming second-harmonic emission. The free-streaming curve is calculated assuming v1 = 0.20 c and v2 = 0.15 c. The gas-dynamic fit is calculated assuming free-streaming to 100 MHz using u1,max = 0.24 c and u2,max = 0.19 c, then plateaus with average velocities u1 = 0.20 c and u2 = 0.15 c. The simulation with nbeam = 104.5 cm−3 (black) has u1 = 0.18 c and u2 = 0.14 c between 70–30 MHz. The simulation with nbeam = 105.0 cm−3 (red) has u1 = 0.22 c and u2 = 0.14 c between 70–30 MHz.
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