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Fig. 1


Representative time instants of the vertically directed bolometric radiation of the non-magnetic simulations (left column) and of the magnetic simulations (middle column), normalized to their respective mean intensities. In the right column are the corresponding time instants of the vertical magnetic field strength at depth z0 = ⟨z(τR = 1)⟩. Rows from top to bottom correspond to the spectral types K8V, K2V, G2V, and F5V, respectively. The snapshots of the bolometric intensities are saturated at Ibol ∕⟨Ibol⟩ = 0.65 and 1.35. The black bar on white background in the top right corner of each panel has a length of 10 × Hp (z0).

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