Left panel: simulated proton energy spectra at the shock at t = 100, 500, and 1500 s for three selected field lines. The blue line in each panel shows, for reference, the spectrum of protons constituting the seed-particle pool, Iseed (E) = p2fseed(p), at t = 100 s. Right panel: corresponding simulated Alfvén wave power spectra P(f) at the shock plotted against f∕fcp, where fcp is the proton cyclotron frequency.
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