Best-fitted w with marginalized 68.3% CL error. The results were obtained assuming a flat universe for the joint data set of QSO, BAO, CMB, with (left panel) and without (right panel) QSO systematics. The QSOs are divided into five groups with z< 1.0, 1.0 <z< 1.5, 1.5 <z< 2.0, 2.0 <z< 2.5, and z> 2.5, while BAO and CMB are added to constrain the value of Ωm, considering the well-known “geometrical degeneracy” problem. We emphasize that the results are still consistent with the cosmological constant (red dashed line) at the 68.3% confidence level.
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