Sketch of a distribution of core and foreground layers within the Gaussian shaped beam of the telescope (black ring). Here, we assume three different core components 2a, 2b, and 2c located in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight which lies in front of the background layer 1 with intensity , see Eq. (12). The foreground layers 3 and 4 are located between the core layers and the telescope along the line of sight (black dashed line). Here, each component is described by different excitation temperatures, velocity offsets etc. indicated by different colors. The thickness of each layer is described indirectly by the total column density , see Appendix B.3. For each foreground layer we assume a beam filling factor of one, i.e., each foreground layer covers the whole beam.
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