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Fig. 11


Summary of the results of the axis and shock shapes providing a quantitative version of the sketch drawn in Fig. 1. a) Cut in the plane of the FR axis and b) cut in the plane orthogonal to the axis plane at the apex. ϕmax,shock is the only free parameter, set here to 30°. ϕmax,MC = 20° is estimated from Eq. (11) with NFR = 45 (Fig. 10). The aspect ratio b/a = 1.2 and 1.3 for axis and shock, respectively, are mean values of the results of Janvier et al. (2014b). At the apex, the sheath thickness is set to the mean value of 0.1 AU, but it is very case dependent (Fig. 7). The radial FR extension is deduced from Janvier et al. (2014b). The FR cross section is elliptic with an aspect ratio of 2 as estimated by Démoulin et al. (2013). The FR front is set at 1 AU, with the axis and shock shapes rescaled by their apex distances (0.87 and 1.1 AU, respectively). The two dotted lines mark the radial distance to the Sun at 0.5 and 1 AU.

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