Top: χ2 per pixel for the polarization analysis of Planck observations between 30 and 353 GHz, summed over Stokes Q and U parameters. Middle: Commander polarization mask (CPM), defined as the product of the CO J = 1 → 0 emission map thresholded at 0.5 KRJ km s-1, and the smoothed χ2 map thresholded at a value of 26. This mask retains a total of 83% of the sky. Bottom: histogram of χ2 values outside the conservative CPM83 mask. The grey dashed line shows the best-fit χ2 distribution with a variable degree of freedom and scaling, used to account for noise modelling effects.
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