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Fig. 1


Opacities of grains (per gram of dust) and model radial optical depths. Subscripts on the curve labels (n30 to n0.03) indicate the model mass M (in M). The wavelength dependence of κsca, κabs, and κext is shown by thick solid lines (see Sect. 2.1 for details). The extinction optical depths τext of the protostellar envelopes (L = 0.3 L) and starless cores are indicated respectively by the three sets of dashed blue and red lines.

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