Fractional abundances of some daughter species as a function of radius, calculated using different initial fractions of CH4 (panels a) and b)), atomic S (panel c)), and N2 (panel d)), in addition to various cosmic-ray rates. In panel a): the arrows indicate the upper limits of C2H (red) and CH3OH (green) deduced in the observational work of Marvel (2005) where the peak radii of these species was assumed to be 1.5 × 1016 cm. In panel b): χ is the scaling factor of the cosmic-ray ionization rate and the star indicates the observational result from Pulliam et al. (2011).
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.