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Table 1

Chemical reactions used in the ionospheric model.

# Reaction Reaction rate Reference

Photo-ionisation:
1 Backx et al. (1976), Kossmann et al. (1989a),
Chung et al. (1993), Yan et al. (1998)
2 H2 + → H+ + H + e Chung et al. (1993) and 2H+ references
3 H2 + → 2H+ + 2e Dujardin et al. (1987), Kossmann et al. (1989b),
Yan et al. (1998)
4 H + → H+ + e Verner et al. (1996)
5 He + → He+ + e Verner et al. (1996)
Electron-impact ionisation:
6 van Wingerden et al. (1980), Ajello et al. (1991),
7 H2 + e → H+ + H + e + e Jain & Baluja (1992), Straub et al. (1996),
8 H2 + e → 2H+ + 2e + e Liu et al. (1998), Brunger & Buckman (2002)
9 H + e → H+ + e + e Brackmann et al. (1958), Burke & Smith (1962),
Bray et al. (1991), Mayol & Salvat (1997),
Stone et al. (2002), Bartlett & Stelbovics (2004)
10 He + e → He+ + e + e LaBahn & Callaway (1970), Mayol & Salvat (1997),
Stone et al. (2002), Bartlett & Stelbovics (2004)
Charge exchange
or proton transfer:
11 see text, Sect. 2.3
12 2.0 × 10-9 Theard & Huntress (1974)
13 3.2 × 10-29 Kim & Fox (1994)
14 He+ + H2 → H+ + H + He 1.0 × 10-9 exp(−5.7 × 103/T) Moses & Bass (2000)
15 9.35 × 10-15 Anicich (1993)
16 2.1 × 10-9 exp(−2.0 × 104/T) Harada et al. (2010)
17 6.4 × 10-10 Karpas et al. (1979)
Recombination:
18 H+ + e → H + 4.0 × 10-12(300 /Te)0.64 Storey & Hummer (1995)
19 2.3 × 10-7(300 /Te)0.4 Auerbach et al. (1977)
20 He+ + e → He + 4.6 × 10-12(300 /Te)0.64 Storey & Hummer (1995)
21 2.9 × 10-8(300 /Te)0.64 Sundström et al. (1994)
22 8.6 × 10-8(300 /Te)0.64 Datz et al. (1995)

Notes. The reaction rates are in units of cm3 s-1 for two-body reactions and cm6 s-1 for three-body reactions. We use wavelength-dependent cross sections for photo-ionisation and electron-impact ionisation reactions.

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