Volume 587, March 2016
|Number of page(s)||43|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||17 February 2016|
SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates
1 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
2 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
3 CNRS, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, 96743, USA
4 Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
5 Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
6 Observatoire de Haute-Provence, Université d’Aix-Marseille & CNRS, 04870 Saint-Michel l’Observatoire, France
7 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
8 CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
9 LUPM, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, UMR 5299, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France
10 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
11 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7239, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, 06300 Nice, France
12 Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Pupin Physics Laboratory, 550 West, 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
13 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Received: 8 September 2015
Accepted: 27 October 2015
While giant extrasolar planets have been studied for more than two decades now, there are still some open questions as to their dominant formation and migration processes, as well as to their atmospheric evolution in different stellar environments. In this paper, we study a sample of giant transiting exoplanets detected by the Kepler telescope with orbital periods up to 400 days. We first defined a sample of 129 giant-planet candidates that we followed up with the SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France) in a 6-year radial velocity campaign. This allowed us to unveil the nature of these candidates and to measure a false-positive rate of 54.6 ± 6.5% for giant-planet candidates orbiting within 400 days of period. Based on a sample of confirmed or likely planets, we then derived the occurrence rates of giant planets in different ranges of orbital periods. The overall occurrence rate of giant planets within 400 days is 4.6 ± 0.6%. We recovered, for the first time in the Kepler data, the different populations of giant planets reported by radial velocity surveys. Comparing these rates with other yields, we find that the occurrence rate of giant planets is lower only for hot Jupiters but not for the longer-period planets. We also derive a first measurement of the occurrence rate of brown dwarfs in the brown-dwarf desert with a value of 0.29 ± 0.17%. Finally, we discuss the physical properties of the giant planets in our sample. We confirm that giant planets receiving moderate irradiation are not inflated, but we find that they are on average smaller than predicted by formation and evolution models. In this regime of low-irradiated giant planets, we find a possible correlation between their bulk density and the iron abundance of the host star, which needs more detections to be confirmed.
Key words: planetary systems / binaries: spectroscopic / techniques: radial velocities / techniques: spectroscopic / techniques: photometric
Based on observations made with SOPHIE on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France.
RV data (Appendices C and D) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A64
© ESO, 2016
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