Sketch of particle trapping triggered by a planet located in the outer disk (20 AU, vertical dash-dotted line), and the effect of the snow line on the dust distribution. The partial filtration of dust particles at the outer edge of the planetary gap and the change of the fragmentation velocity of dust particles near the snow line (vfrag from 1 m s-1 inside versus 10 m s-1 outside) allows the constant replenishment of small particles in the inner disk. The vertical dashed line represents the snow line position, which can vary within a certain range (horizontal arrow for a typical T Tauri star).
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