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Fig. 2


Initial configuration of the simulations. are given in the reference frame moving with v0. The initial velocity of each fragment in the simulation frame of reference is given by vi = . The direction of is given by the vector from the centre of the square to the respective vertex. The collision fragments α, β, γ, and δ are positioned on the vertices of a square centred on r0, the position vector with respect to Saturn. The angle ϕ gives the rotation of the square around the vector r0 × v0 (the normal of the orbital plane). For ϕ = 0α, γ, and Saturn are connected by a straight line, with γ between α and Saturn. The fragments are always set on the vertices in a counter-clockwise sense, as shown in the sketch. The dimensions here are not to scale.

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