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Fig. 2

image

Initial configuration of the simulations. are given in the reference frame moving with v0. The initial velocity of each fragment in the simulation frame of reference is given by vi = . The direction of is given by the vector from the centre of the square to the respective vertex. The collision fragments α, β, γ, and δ are positioned on the vertices of a square centred on r0, the position vector with respect to Saturn. The angle ϕ gives the rotation of the square around the vector r0 × v0 (the normal of the orbital plane). For ϕ = 0α, γ, and Saturn are connected by a straight line, with γ between α and Saturn. The fragments are always set on the vertices in a counter-clockwise sense, as shown in the sketch. The dimensions here are not to scale.

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