Top: a) a set of two resonant orbits in the inertial frame; b) in the rotating frame in which they are resonant – here through ILR-COR coupling. Bottom: c) fluctuations in the distribution function in action-space caused by finite-N effects showing overdensities for the blue and red orbits. The dashed lines correspond to 3 contour levels of the intrinsic frequency ω = m·Ω respectively associated with the resonance vector m1 (gray lines) and m2 (black lines). The two sets of orbits satisfy the resonant condition m1·Ω1 = m2·Ω2, and therefore lead to a secular diffusion of the orbital structure of the disc according to Eq. (2). One should emphasize that the resonant orbits need not be caught in the same resonance (m1 ≠ m2), be close in position space, nor in action space.
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