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Fig. 11


Long-term trend found in the RV residuals data of XO-2N after removing the orbital signal of XO-2N b, caused either by a long-period companion XO-2N c or by the activity cycle of the star. Green diamonds, red squares, and blue circles indicate the HDS, HIRES, and HARPS-N measurements, respectively, while the black solid line shows the best fit of the quadratic trend. Residuals of RV measurements with an error bar greater than 5 m s-1, even though considered in the analysis, were not included in this plot for a better visual representation of the long-term trend.

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