Scattering geometry for Thomson scattering. Here ẑ∗, ẑ, and are unit vectors for the stellar rotation axis, observer axis, and local radial. The scatterer has coordinates (ϑ,ϕ). The scattering angles are (χ,ψ), and i is the viewing inclination. The appearance of π/ 2 ensures that a net polarization aligned with ẑ∗ has q> 0, versus q< 0 if perpendicular.
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