Heating and cooling processes implemented in HERACLES based on Wolfire et al. (1995, 2003). We represent the respective rates of energy-densities gains and losses versus the temperature at the fixed density n = 1 cm-3, typical of the WNM. The total cooling (black solid curve) is decomposed in its different components: CII (dark blue), OI (light blue), recombination on interstellar grains (red), Lyman α (green). The dashed blue line is the heating dominated by the photo-electric effect on small dust grains. We considered a spatially uniform radiation field with the spectrum and intensity of the Habing field (G0/ 1.7 where G0 is the Draine flux) (Habing 1968; Draine 1978).
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