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Table 1

Comparison of acceleration mechanisms for systems with δy < Δy.

Mechanism Maximum energy gain Condition δy < Δy Comments

Nonadiabatic drift acceleration keV 2vφ/ < ΔyΩ0
(vφ ≥ v0) single reflection

Nonadiabatic drift acceleration keV the same estimates are valid
(vφ ≥ v0) multiple reflections for adiabatic acceleration

Surfatron with Ex ≠ 0 keV energy gain is ~m

Surfatron with 1 + b0f(φ) ~ 0 m0Δxw)2 ≤ 1 MeV 0.5Ω0xw)2/vφ < Δy energy gain is ~m
Surfatron with dvφ/dx ≠ 0 keV l0r(α − 1)/(1 + α)/ < Δy energy gain is ~q2α/(1 + α)m(1 − α)/(1 + α)

Notes. Here, we use the parameter r = (Ω0l0/vφ) for the system with vφ(x) ~ (l0/x)α. The scale Δx defines the distance between the X-line region and the initial magnetic loop. The parameter determines the maximum distance, which particles can pass in the resonance with the front (here Pw is the power density of magnetic field fluctuations measured in nT2/Hz). For Pw taken from spacecraft measurements in the Earth magnetotail (Zimbardo et al. 2010), we have Δxw ~ 104 km. Numerical estimates of gained energy are given for vφ ~ 200–300 km s-1 and proton mass.

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