Particle trajectory in the system with . System parameters are kρ0 = 10, b0 = 15, vφ/v0 = 1, α = 1/4, and l0 = 8. Two top panels: projections of the particle trajectory onto (x,y) plane and (vx,vy) plane. Bottom panels: evolution of wave-phase along the trajectory and the particle energy as a function of time.
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