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Fig. 8


Top panel: TCMB as a function of redshift. The red filled circles represent TCMB measured from the tSZ emission law in redshift bins of Planck clusters. The green star shows COBE-FIRAS measurement at z = 0 (Fixsen 2009). The orange crosses show TCMB measurements using individual clusters (Battistelli et al. 2002; Luzzi et al. 2009). Dark-blue triangles represent measurements from CI and CII absorption (Cui et al. 2005; Ge et al. 1997; Srianand et al. 2000; Molaro et al. 2002) at z = (1.8,2.0,2.3,3.0). Blue diamonds show the measurements from CO absorption lines (Srianand et al. 2008; Noterdaeme et al. 2011), and finally the light-blue asterisk is the constraint from various molecular species analyses by Muller et al. (2013). The solid black line presents the standard evolution for TCMB and the dashed black line represents our best-fitting model combining all the measurements. The 1 and 2σ envelopes are displayed as shaded dark and light-gray regions. Bottom panel: deviation from the standard evolution in units of standard deviation. The dashed and dotted black lines correspond to the 1 and 2σ levels.

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