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Fig. 2

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Images showing the three Jovian bolides and stacking effects. Differences in sizes are due to differences in the original data and depend on the specifics of the telescope and camera used. Each image has been built by stacking enough frames to clearly show the atmosphere and the impact: 190 (A.W.), 450 (C.G.), 95 (M.T.), 40 (K.A.), 97 (M.I.), 160 (G.H. left frame), and 1000 (G.H. central frame). All images have been processed using high-pass filters to increase the contrast of atmospheric features. The higher the number of frames, the better the image quality, but the lower the contribution from the impact, which disappears after stacking of 600 frames in the high-quality observations of A.W., C.G., and G.H. This effect is noticeable in the third row of images showing three versions of the September 2012 impact. The left image is a stacking of 160 frames. The middle image is a stacking of 1000 frames including the impact. The right image shows the stacking of 1000 frames with the impact flash added as built from 20 frames. In all cases the flashes extend over several pixels because they are affected by diffraction and atmospheric seeing.

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