Evolution of the mean merger relic fraction based on 28 model clusters. A cosmological volume simulation has been run to build halo merger trees. Semi-analytic models of galaxy formation have been constructed based on the halo merger trees. Galaxy mergers were identified in this process. The lifetime of the merger features has been estimated based on hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers, specifically for the target imaging depth of μr = 28 mag arcsec-2. Then, we count massive early-type galaxies that still show their merger features since their latest major merger. Roughly 35% of the massive early-type galaxies at z ~ 0.1 are expected to show post-merger features, which explains the recent finding of Sheen et al. The value has steadily declined since the early universe and is much higher for early types. Late-type (disk) galaxies in the clusters on the other hand are not expected to show major merger features so frequently.
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