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Fig. 1

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Example of the orbital evolution of a galaxy assumed to have merger features up to z = 0 with respect to the center of a cluster in a comoving space. The solid and dotted lines show the tracks of the galaxy with a merger feature and its merger counterpart, respectively. The galaxy undergoes a major merger at z = 0.3 and enters the virial radius of the cluster at z = 0.1. The black cross indicates the center of the cluster and the orange dashed circle shows the virial radius of the host halo at z = 0. The mass of the galaxy at z = 0.3 is 1.4 × 1010   M and the mass of the merger counterpart is 1.0 × 1010   M.

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