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Fig. 2

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Energy input required from energetic particles accelerated by one CCSN to produce a given mass of Be, such as to have [Be/Fe] = 0 (solar), assuming that a core-collapse SN produces, on average, 0.1 M of Fe. Solid curve corresponds to the case of a constant composition for GCR, dotted curve corresponds to a time-variable composition, following that of the ISM. In the former case, the required energy is approximately equal to the energy imparted to energetic particles by supernovae, namely  ~0.1 of their kinetic energy of  ~1.5    ×    1051 erg; in the latter case, the energy required to keep [Be/Fe] = 0 becomes much higher than the total kinetic energy of a CCSN for metallicities  [Fe/H]  ≤ −1.6.

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