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Fig. 8

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Evolution of the vertically integrated dust-to-gas ratio for the weak and the strong turbulence simulation (upper and lower panels respectively). The panels on the left hand side show the results of the full simulation, the panels on the right hand side those of the simplified model. The dotted line is the initial condition which is taken to be a constant dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 up to 180 AU. Even the smallest grains at the low gas densities beyond 180 AU would decouple and quickly drift inside. We chose to remove the dust beyond 180 AU to avoid a wave of dust sweeping inwards, which would be caused by an initial condition with constant dust-to-gas ratio throughout the disk.

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